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耿马县傣族特色餐饮经营管理探究

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摘   要··············································································································II

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Abstract··········································································································III

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一、耿马县傣族的历史文化特色简介····························································1 copyright paper51.com

(一)耿马傣族族源、族称及分布········································································1

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(二)耿马傣族的服饰和传统节日······································································1 http://snowings.com

(三)傣族的宗教信仰·······················································································1 paper51.com

二、耿马傣族的特色餐饮··················································································2 内容来自snowings.com

三、耿马傣族餐饮业经营中存在的问题·····················································4 http://snowings.com

(一)门槛低、不注重营养搭配······································································4 内容来自snowings.com

(二)传统的经营管理出现的问题··································································4

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四、耿马傣族餐饮业得SWOT分析·······························································5 内容来自论文无忧网 snowings.com

(一)耿马傣族餐饮业的优势··········································································5 内容来自论文无忧网 snowings.com

(二)耿马傣族餐饮业的劣势··········································································5

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(三)耿马傣族餐饮业的机会············································································6 paper51.com

(四)耿马傣族餐饮业的威胁············································································6 http://snowings.com

五、耿马傣族餐饮业的经营管理····································································6

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(一)改善餐厅卫生、重视营养搭配···································································6·

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(二)全信息化经营的方式和益处··································································7 copyright paper51.com

(三)价格定价································································································7

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(四)员工的分工与管理·················································································7 http://snowings.com

(五)餐厅的服务管理·····················································································8 内容来自论文无忧网 snowings.com

(六)特色餐饮的促销························································································8 http://snowings.com

参考文献············································································································12

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致谢····················································································································13 http://snowings.com

   

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一、耿马县傣族的历史文化特色简介

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   (一)耿马傣族族源、族称及分布

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 傣族是耿马世居民族之一,也是自治县的自治民族。傣族自称“傣”,“傣”的本意,是发明犁并首先使用犁耕地的人。傣族在秦汉时期称“越”(或粤);唐宋时期称“掸”或“金齿”、“黑齿”;明清时期则称“白衣”、“摆夷”;民国时期统称“摆夷”。新中国成立以后,废除民族压迫制度,实行民族平等的政策,50年代国家对于境内少数民族进行民族的自称而确定为“傣族”。据傣族老人讲“傣”是自由的意思。耿马傣族主要分部在盂定镇、耿马镇、勐撒镇、贺派乡和勐简乡。首批傣族何时迁入耿马繁衍生息无史志记载。据<元史>记载,唐宋时期,傣族由西北向南迁徙,与望族f佤族先民)及其他少数民族共同开发孟定、耿马地方。据耿马傣族文手抄本资料记述,耿马土司罕氏刷与罕谢于傣历七十二年,(明洪武十三年,1380年)迁徙到勐角(今沧源县境内)建寨,又于傣历七五九年(1397年)到耿马定居。总的来看,耿马的傣族多数是于元末明初由勐卯(今德宏瑞丽)一带迁徙而来,也有一部分是由普洱、景谷等地迁至耿马的。

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(二)耿马傣族的服饰和传统节日

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 妇女挽髻于头顶,白花包头巾松散护头,身穿白色、浅绿色半透明的紧身长袖无领斜襟短上衣,扣针代替纽扣,里穿紧身条花自制背心,下系自织有红绿蓝等色搭配的话筒群,红色裙腰,系各色腰节,配戴耳环手镯,镶金牙齿,咀嚼槟榔,手臂文刺简单图案。男子穿无领对襟上衣,白包头,右耳显露包头巾一角为饰。穿宽松长裤,以裤腰结代替裤带。男子多纹身,个别除面部外,多处文有各种经文图案,习惯赤足,外出挂筒帕和长刀。堆沙节(泼水节),是傣族人一年一度辞旧迎新的传统佳节,即傣家除夕新年,日期在傣历的六月下旬或者七月上旬(公历四月中旬),也就是清明节后10天或11天开始,节日共3天。第一天为除夕,傣语叫“腕嘎利”,即休息天,赶小街做节日前的准备。第二天叫“腕脑”,意为“魔鬼尸马”,即“日子之王”。这天清早每家都做饭菜一桌,加上米花,象耳粑粑一对,抬到佛寺供奉祖先,于佛前滴水,并到街头广场举行庆祝活动,互相泼水祝福。下午青年男女进行堆沙,以求风调雨顺,五谷丰登,人畜兴旺。开门节,关门节也是一年中最重要的节日。

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